Thursday, April 17, 2014

The History Of Autism



I found this amazing infographic on the website http://www.masters-in-special-education.com/

The original page where I found this infographic is http://www.masters-in-special-education.com/history-of-autism/  Go check it out because there's tons of other info down at the bottom of that page...

Also on the bottom of the page it says "Share this infographic on your site" so that is what I
am doing...

:-)

Enjoy... 

Class is now in session...



Autism
Source: Masters-in-Special-Education.com


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The History of Autism
Over the past century, the definition of autism and the array of disorders it encompasses has not only changed but also been subject to gross misunderstanding. Let’s take a look at a short history of autism, as well as current diagnosis rates and information.


What is Autism?
Autism is an umbrella term for autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by: (5)
  • Constant problems with social communication and interaction across a variety of contexts
  • Repetitive, restricted patterns of behavior, activities and interests
  • Early-onset emergence of symptoms (typically in the first two years of life)
  • Symptoms that cause major impairment in social, educational or other important areas of functioning
It’s called a spectrum because of the wide range of symptoms and impairment levels children can have. Some are only mildly affected by their symptoms, while other children are severely disabled.

The Greek root of the word “autism” is “autos,” meaning “self.” Individuals with autism are generally withdrawn from social and emotional interaction, giving rise to the term. (1)


Autism: A Brief Timeline
1911
Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler first uses the term in reference to certain symptoms of schizophrenia. (1)

1920s
Stemming from the belief that autism symptoms are caused by diet (including those high in gluten), biochemical treatments are used, and diet supplements and restrictions are put in place for children with autism. (3)

1930s
Electroconvulsive therapy is first used to try to correct antisocial and self-destructive behavior. Though controversial, this type of treatment is still used in rare cases today. (3)

1940s
“Autism” is first used to describe children who experience emotional or social issues. (1)

1943
A definition for autism is put in place by child psychiatrist Leo Kanner. He describes autism as “lack of affective contact, fascination with objects, desire for sameness and non-communicative language before 30 months of age.” (2)

1944
German scientist Hans Asperger detects a condition with similar afflictions that is now called “Asperger’s syndrome.” There is still believed to be a link between autism and schizophrenia. (1, 2)

1950s
Autism is falsely suspected of being caused by cold and uncaring mothers. Parentectomy, or the removal of the afflicted child from his or her parents for long periods of time, is utilized for treatment by a doctor in a study. (3)

1960s
Various treatments are tested, but there is still a limited understanding of what helps patients. Pain and punishment are still inflicted on children to try to correct antisocial behavior. The use of LSD is implemented. As a serotonin inhibitor, it is believed that altering the patient’s state of perception will help alleviate symptoms. (1, 3)

1965
Bernard Rimland, an American psychologist, establishes the Autism Society of America, one of the first autism advocacy groups. (2)

1980s
Early forms of behavioral therapy are used primarily in the treatment of children with autism, and autism is finally categorized separately from schizophrenia. Neurosensory therapy is introduced, as researchers and doctors begin to believe that sensitivity to auditory stimulation is responsible for some antisocial behavior. (1, 2, 3)

1990s
Holding therapy, in which a child is restrained and forced to perform various social reactions like maintaining eye contact, is used. (3)

Today
The term “autism spectrum disorder” is used, and specific tools for diagnosing the severity of a child’s case are developed. Applied behavioral therapy and psycho-dynamic therapies are typically used to treat children with autism. (1, 3)


Autism Today
Due to a more thorough understanding of the disorder and effective treatments for its symptoms, more children are getting the help they need to live more social, emotionally fulfilling lives. We now understand a lot more about the disorder and who it affects.

1 in 68
Estimated number of children affected by an autism spectrum disorder. For boys, the number is 1 in 42. (4)

2%-18%
Likelihood that a person will have a second child with autism if they already have one (4)

1 in 10
Number of children with autism who also have Down syndrome or another chromosomal disorder (4)

2 years
Age at which a diagnosis of autism is typically reliable. Most children are not diagnosed until they are 4 years old. (4)
Unfortunately, along with a more thorough understanding of autism has come a boom of diagnoses and fear regarding the cause of the disorder.

120%
Increase in autism spectrum disorder prevalence between 2002 and 2010 (4)




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 Hope you enjoyed that thorough "History Of Autism" 

 Class dismissed! :-) 

 THE END 


091214
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9 comments:

  1. Thanks for sharing.it was very informative.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Nice Infographic -- However, it's a shame that on the 1965 date that they used a picture of Dr. Stephen Edelson (current ARI director) instead of a picture of Dr. Bernard Rimland.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Had not looked at Edelson's face for some 2 years (since about 2011), so did not immediately catch it. The general face did suggest "Rimland" to me, probably closer to the 1970s or the 1980s.

      Delete
  3. Does the link to the university blog really support the time of the diet restrictions (1920s)?

    I thought there might be more mass-produced and processed food around the time of the First World War...

    And Bernard Rimland looks so young!

    ReplyDelete
  4. Ugh, parents need to get IN that bubble.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. ...and heartbreakingly, some times they can't...

      Delete
  5. thank you. for sharing. glad to see science has come a long way.

    ReplyDelete
  6. Pretty accurate, but I believe holding therapy was popular way before the 1990s...?

    ReplyDelete

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